Aviation Statistics - 2007

The following document is available for downloading or viewing:

For more information on accessing this file, please visit our help page.

Transportation Safety Board of Canada

Statistical Summary

Aviation Occurrences 2007

Foreword

This document provides users of Canadian aviation safety data with an annual summary of selected statistics on aviation occurrences.

Users of these statistics are advised that, in a live database, the occurrence data are constantly being updated. Consequently, the statistics can change slightly over time. Further, as many occurrences are not formally investigated, information recorded on some occurrences may not have been verified. Therefore, caution should be used when utilizing these statistics. The 2007 statistics presented here reflect the TSB database updated as of 16 June 2008.

To enhance awareness and increase the safety value of the material presented in the TSB Statistical Summary, Aviation Occurrences 2007, readers are encouraged to copy or reprint the data presented, in whole or in part, for further distribution (with acknowledgements of the source).

The TSB is an independent agency operating under its own Act of Parliament. Its sole aim is the advancement of transportation safety.

Comments on this document can be forwarded to the following address:

Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Communications Division
Place du Centre
200 Promenade du Portage
4th Floor
Gatineau, Quebec
K1A 1K8

Telephone: 819-994-3741
Facsimile: 819-997-2239
E-mail: communications@bst-tsb.gc.ca

© Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada 2008
Cat. No. TU1-3/2007
ISBN 978-0-662-05709-3


Table of Contents

Appendices

Tables

Figures


Aviation Occurences in 2007

Accidents

Overview of Accidents and Fatalities (Tables 1, 2, 3 and 8)

In 2007, a total of 324 aviation accidents were reported to the TSB. Of this number, 284 involved Canadian-registered aircraft (excluding ultralights), an 8.4% increase from 2006 (Figure 1).

Although flying activity increased from last year, the accident rate also increased to 6.5 accidents per 100 000 flying hours from the 2006 accident rate of 6.3 accidents per 100 000 flying hours. Nevertheless, statistical analysis using linear regression indicates a significant downward trend (p<0.001)1 in accident rates over the past 10 years.

The 287 accident-involved Canadian-registered aircraft (excluding ultralights) included 237 aeroplanes2 (59 of which were commercially operated) and 46 helicopters. The remaining 4 were balloons, gliders or gyrocopters.

Figure 1 - Accidents and Accident Rates,3 1998-2007 [D]

Figure 1 - Accidents and Accident Rates, 1998-2007

Of the 59 commercial aeroplanes (5 airliners, 4 commuter aircraft, 39 air taxi and 11 aerial work) involved in accidents in 2007 (Figure 2), 5 air taxi aircraft, 1 commuter aircraft and 1 aerial work aircraft were involved in fatal accidents. One corporate aircraft was involved in a fatal accident. There were no fatal accidents involving airliners or state aircraft.

A total of 177 private/corporate/other aeroplanes were involved in accidents, 17% higher than the five-year average of 151. In 2007, 18 such accidents resulted in fatalities, up from 16 in 2006 and up from the five-year average of 15.

Figure 2 - Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents by Aircraft Type, 2007 [D]

Figure 2 - Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents by Aircraft Type, 2007

In 2007, Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, were involved in 33 fatal accidents (Figure 3), 6% higher than last year's total of 31 and 9% higher than the 2002-2006 average of 30. The number of fatalities (49) decreased from the five-year average (50), but the number of serious injuries (56) increased from the five-year average (38). Passenger fatalities accounted for 33% of aeroplane fatalities in 2007, and crew member fatalities accounted for 67% (excluding fatalities from ultralight accidents).

Figure 3 - Fatalities and Fatal Accidents, 1998-2007 [D]

Figure 3 - Fatalities and Fatal Accidents, 1998-2007

Aeroplanes operated by the state (that is, operated by federal or provincial governments) were involved in 1 accident in 2007 with no fatalities.

In 2007, there were 46 helicopter accidents, a 7% decrease from the five-year average of 49. Of the 46 helicopter accidents, 7 were fatal, resulting in 7 fatalities. Over the past 10 years, the highest proportion of helicopter accidents occurred during air transport operations (31%) and training (12%).

In 2007, 30 ultralight aircraft were involved in accidents in Canada, with 5 accidents resulting in 6 fatalities. Ten foreign-registered ultralight aircraft were involved in accidents in Canada, with no fatalities.

Accidents by Selected Categories

Province (Table 3): In 2007, Ontario accounted for 25% of Canadian-registered aircraft accidents, while Quebec and British Columbia accounted for 21% and 13% respectively. Canadian-registered aircraft accidents were lower than the five-year average in Alberta, Manitoba and British Columbia, and higher than the five-year average in the Atlantic provinces, Quebec, Ontario and the Territories (Figure 4).

Figure 4 - Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents by Province, 2007 [D]

Figure 4 - Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents by Province, 2007

Events and Phases (Tables 4 to 7): Accidents are frequently classified according to the first event (or abnormal condition) in the sequence of events that led to the occurrence. This classification serves to demonstrate the nature and distribution of safety-significant events, and how these events shift over time. However, the first event should not be construed to be the cause of the accident.

In 2007, the most common first event in aeroplane accidents was a take-off/landing event (27%). Collision with object (11%) and collision with terrain (11%) were the next most common first events. In helicopter accidents, power loss (17%), collision with terrain (15%), collision with object (13%), and control loss (11%) were the most common first events.

The 1998-2007 statistics show that the first event leading to an accident varies substantially according to the flight phase of the aircraft involved. For aeroplanes, accidents during the landing phase account for about 37% of total accidents. The most common first events in such accidents were landing (such as nose over, tire blow-out, etc.) and control loss. Approximately 22% of aeroplane accidents occur during the take-off phase; in these accidents, power loss and control loss were the most common first events. The en-route phase accounted for about 14% of aeroplane accidents, with power loss being the most common first event in that flight phase.

The approach/landing phase accounted for 31% of helicopter accidents, with the most common first events being collision with object, power loss and control loss. The en-route phase (17%) had power loss and collision with terrain as the most common first events. The manoeuvring phase (16%) had collision with object and power loss as the most common first events. About 13% of helicopter accidents occurred in the take-off phase, with collision with object being a common first event.

Operation Type (Table 8): In 2007, aeroplane accidents occurred mainly on recreational flights (51%), followed by air transport (17%) and training flights (14%). Helicopter accidents occurred mainly on air transport flights (35%).

Incidents

Overview of Incidents (Tables 1, 9 and 10)

Pursuant to TSB mandatory incident reporting requirements, 895 incidents were reported in 2007, 691 of which involved Canadian-registered aircraft.

In 2007, the most frequent incident types were declared emergency (27%), risk of collision or loss of separation (22%), engine failure (16%), and smoke/fire incidents (15%), as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5 - Reportable Incidents by Type, 2007 [D]

Figure 5 - Reportable Incidents by Type, 2007

Over the past five years, the first event in declared emergency incidents on Canadian-registered aircraft usually involved component failures, the most common of which were landing gear or hydraulic system failures.

The majority of risk of collision incidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft had air traffic services (ATS)-related or air proximity events4 as their first event.

Appendix A – Aviation Occurrence Tables

Table 1 - Aviation Occurrences and Casualties, 1998–2007
  1. Ultralight aircraft excluded 
  2. As some accidents may involve multiple aircraft, the number of aircraft involved may differ from the total number of accidents. 
  3. Other: Contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (that is, flying schools, flying clubs, etc.) 
  4. Includes gliders, balloons and gyrocopters 
  5. Source: Transport Canada (hours flown are estimated from 2003) 
  6. Accident rate does not include "Other Aircraft Involved" 

Data extracted 16 June 2008.

  1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Canadian-Registered Aircraft1
Accidents 388 341 320 295 274 295 252 259 262 284
Aeroplanes Involved2 318 286 258 243 210 242 206 206 208 237
Airliners 14 6 9 5 6 7 3 5 7 5
Commuter Aircraft 10 13 4 8 6 9 1 6 4 4
Air Taxi 108 70 45 37 41 35 43 33 31 39
Aerial Work 18 18 19 18 12 17 8 14 14 11
Corporate 11 6 5 4 2 2 4 6 2 7
State 2 2 1 3 4 3 2 1 4 1
Private/Other3 155 171 175 168 139 169 145 141 146 170
Helicopters Involved 57 46 53 46 56 44 41 50 56 46
Other Aircraft
Involved4
17 15 12 9 10 12 9 8 4 4
Hours Flown
(thousands)5
3931 4047 3982 3885 3712 3790 3961 4079 4162 4373
Accident Rate
(per 100 000 hours)6
9.5 8.2 7.8 7.4 7.2 7.5 6.2 6.3 6.3 6.5
Fatal Accidents 32 34 38 33 31 32 24 34 31 33
Aeroplanes Involved2 25 28 26 25 23 26 18 22 23 25
Airliners 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Commuter Aircraft 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1
Air Taxi 8 5 3 5 5 5 3 6 5 5
Aerial Work 0 1 2 1 1 3 0 2 1 1
Corporate 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
State 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0
Private/Other3 15 17 18 17 15 18 15 13 16 17
Helicopters Involved 6 4 11 6 6 3 4 10 9 7
Other Aircraft
Involved4
2 4 1 3 3 4 2 2 0 2
Fatalities 87 65 65 60 51 59 37 51 52 49
Serious Injuries 49 42 53 37 42 43 27 37 39 56
Canadian-Registered Ultralight Aircraft
Accidents 37 35 38 35 36 46 36 31 28 30
Fatal Accidents 4 12 5 6 9 7 6 5 1 5
Fatalities 7 19 9 8 12 9 10 6 1 6
Serious Injuries 7 7 10 8 4 14 7 9 12 7
Foreign-Registered Aircraft
Accidents in Canada 21 21 17 29 13 30 20 18 14 10
Fatal Accidents 5 5 6 8 1 6 3 6 2 0
Fatalities 236 8 16 10 2 8 10 10 2 0
Serious Injuries 3 0 2 5 0 3 2 15 1 2
All Aircraft: Reportable Incidents 771 699 725 853 865 834 910 822 826 895
Risk of Collision / Loss of Separation 181 168 161 204 193 154 223 180 171 171
Declared Emergency 226 207 225 255 280 293 278 224 260 302
Engine Failure 170 155 161 175 160 132 143 148 136 137
Smoke/Fire 106 87 84 107 101 103 94 103 107 125
Collision 4 7 8 19 22 16 21 12 21 14
Other 84 75 86 93 109 136 151 155 131 146
Table 2 – Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents, Accident Rates and Fatalities by Operator Type, 1998–2007
  1. Other: Contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (that is, flying school, flying clubs, etc.) 
  2. Source: Transport Canada (hours flown are estimated from 2003) 

Data extracted 16 June 2008.

  1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Accidents
Aeroplanes Involved
Airliners 14 6 9 5 6 7 3 5 7 5
Commuter Aircraft 10 13 4 8 6 9 1 6 4 4
Air Taxi 108 70 45 37 41 35 43 33 31 39
Aerial Work 18 18 19 18 12 17 8 14 14 11
Corporate 11 6 5 4 2 2 4 6 2 7
State 2 2 1 3 4 3 2 1 4 1
Private/Other1 155 171 175 168 139 169 145 141 146 170
Helicopters Involved 57 46 53 46 56 44 41 50 56 46
Total 375 332 311 289 266 286 247 256 264 283
Hours Flown (thousands)2
Aeroplanes 3321 3437 3377 3281 3135 3200 3351 3450 3516 3685
Airliners 1210 1247 1198 1168 1124 1148 1244 1334 1387 1469
Commuter Aircraft 329 344 337 322 311 318 326 335 348 367
Air Taxi 805 825 792 754 683 651 655 633 624 647
Aerial Work 173 197 219 242 262 313 337 360 383 407
State 174 196 220 240 258 307 344 385 401 403
Private/Other/Corporate 630 629 612 555 496 463 445 403 373 392
Helicopters 610 609 604 604 578 590 610 629 645 688
Total 3931 4047 3982 3885 3712 3790 3961 4079 4162 4373
Accident Rates (per 100 000 hours)
Aeroplanes
Airliners 1.2 0.5 0.8 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.3
Commuter Aircraft 3.0 3.8 1.2 2.5 1.9 2.8 0.3 1.8 1.1 1.1
Air Taxi 13.4 8.5 5.7 4.9 6.0 5.4 6.6 5.2 5.0 6.0
Aerial Work 10.4 9.1 8.7 7.4 4.6 5.4 2.4 3.9 3.7 2.7
State 1.1 1.0 0.5 1.3 1.6 1.0 0.6 0.3 1.0 0.2
Private/Other/Corporate 26.3 28.1 29.4 31.0 28.4 36.9 33.5 36.5 39.7 45.2
Helicopters 9.3 7.6 8.8 7.6 9.7 7.5 6.7 7.9 8.7 6.7
Total (all aircraft) 9.5 8.2 7.8 7.4 7.2 7.5 6.2 6.3 6.3 6.5
Fatalities: Crew
Aeroplanes
Airliners 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Commuter Aircraft 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 2 0 0
Air Taxi 9 6 2 4 1 5 2 6 5 6
Aerial Work 0 1 3 1 1 4 0 2 1 1
Corporate 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
State 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
Private/Other 16 16 20 17 15 15 14 11 16 17
Helicopters 5 5 10 7 6 3 4 8 6 6
Total 34 33 41 32 24 27 20 29 29 31
Fatalities: Passengers
Aeroplanes
Airliners 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Commuter Aircraft 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Air Taxi 16 4 5 8 7 10 14 2 10 2
Aerial Work 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 3 0 0
Corporate 1 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
State 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Private/Other 11 14 6 12 16 16 1 7 7 11
Helicopters 13 6 8 2 0 3 0 7 5 1
Total 50 28 20 24 23 29 15 19 22 15
Table 3 – Accidents Involving Canadian-Registered Aircraft by Province/Territory, 1998–2007
  1. This territory was created on 01 April 1999. 

Data extracted 16 June  2008.

  1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Accidents
Newfoundland and Labrador 7 5 14 10 6 9 5 5 3 5
Prince Edward Island 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
Nova Scotia 7 4 9 3 7 1 3 0 0 3
New Brunswick 6 7 5 4 2 1 5 5 2 7
Quebec 42 46 55 48 42 55 44 56 48 61
Ontario 106 106 73 64 74 80 71 57 52 71
Manitoba 29 32 17 28 17 28 12 18 18 17
Saskatchewan 21 22 9 18 18 16 13 13 18 21
Alberta 62 52 39 36 46 34 29 28 41 30
British Columbia 70 40 68 58 41 54 46 59 53 36
Nunavut1 0 0 4 2 1 0 2 2 6 4
Northwest Territories 13 14 11 12 4 5 7 5 6 9
Yukon 8 4 6 4 4 4 6 3 4 6
Outside Canada 17 9 9 7 12 7 9 7 11 14
Total 388 341 320 295 274 295 252 259 262 284
Fatal Accidents
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 0 1
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 2 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Quebec 9 5 5 6 6 5 4 9 3 4
Ontario 4 9 4 6 5 11 2 6 4 6
Manitoba 2 4 0 2 1 0 2 2 0 3
Saskatchewan 2 1 2 0 2 1 2 0 3 4
Alberta 4 5 3 2 2 3 2 2 6 3
British Columbia 5 8 10 11 9 8 6 12 9 9
Nunavut1 0 0 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
Northwest Territories 0 1 1 3 0 0 1 0 1 1
Yukon 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
Outside Canada 3 0 4 1 3 1 2 1 4 1
Total 32 34 38 33 31 32 24 34 31 33
Fatalities
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 1 3 3 2 3 1 2 0 1
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 4 0 4 0 2 0 1 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Quebec 29 9 8 12 14 9 4 12 6 5
Ontario 9 14 5 8 6 27 14 10 6 7
Manitoba 5 7 0 4 1 0 2 2 0 4
Saskatchewan 5 1 2 0 2 1 2 0 3 5
Alberta 10 8 3 4 3 4 2 4 9 5
British Columbia 12 24 19 17 16 13 6 19 16 15
Nunavut1 0 0 5 3 0 0 1 0 0 0
Northwest Territories 0 1 3 8 0 0 2 0 6 3
Yukon 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
Outside Canada 12 0 11 1 5 1 2 1 5 3
Total 87 65 65 60 51 59 37 51 52 49


Top of Page

Table 4 – Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents by First Event and Phase of Flight, 1998–2007

Data extracted 16 June 2008.

  1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 35 30 41 37 23 27 30 24 21 22
Power Loss 55 41 37 37 28 36 20 32 27 22
Collision with Object 40 36 24 21 16 25 16 19 29 25
Collision with Terrain 18 22 30 17 16 25 19 20 24 27
Collision with Moving Aircraft 3 9 3 3 2 1 3 1 8 5
Operations-Related Event 10 12 5 6 6 5 4 10 5 7
Component System Malfunction 15 18 15 13 14 7 16 11 10 14
Landing Gear Collapsed/Retracted 18 15 8 7 10 9 10 3 3 9
Runway Overrun 5 4 2 1 1 1 2 4 3 1
Take-off/Landing Event 59 53 46 47 45 55 39 34 43 64
Wheels-up Landing 6 9 4 5 9 5 6 5 3 6
Component System-Related Event 13 4 10 9 7 13 3 7 4 11
Weather-Related Event 10 7 15 12 12 9 16 13 5 5
Aircraft Damage 10 1 5 4 3 4 2 4 5 3
Other/Unknown 21 25 13 24 18 20 20 19 18 16
Total 318 286 258 243 210 242 206 206 208 237
Helicopters Involved in Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 10 3 3 5 6 3 3 5 7 5
Power Loss 6 12 9 5 9 11 3 5 10 8
Collision with Object 12 8 14 8 5 3 3 6 11 6
Collision with Terrain 3 6 5 4 9 5 7 9 8 7
Collision with Moving Aircraft 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2
Operations-Related Event 0 5 1 2 0 2 6 2 1 2
Sling-Related Event 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 0 4 1
Dynamic System Malfunction 1 0 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 1
Dynamic Rollover 2 0 3 1 3 1 3 4 0 1
Autorotative Landing 1 2 2 3 4 4 0 1 0 0
Weather-Related Event 1 1 3 4 2 1 2 2 3 3
Aircraft Damage 6 3 2 3 1 3 4 5 2 1
Other/Unknown 13 4 7 6 11 8 7 11 10 9
Total 57 46 53 46 56 44 41 50 56 46
Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents by Phase of Flight
Standing/Taxiing 26 17 21 18 22 23 16 19 22 16
Take-off 72 72 59 52 50 47 49 47 44 46
En Route 52 38 39 34 30 40 20 29 35 26
Manoeuvring 22 21 17 15 11 11 8 14 11 12
Approach 28 30 24 36 18 21 23 24 20 21
Landing 112 105 91 87 72 93 83 70 73 109
Post-Impact 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
Unknown 6 2 7 1 7 6 6 3 3 7
Total 318 286 258 243 210 242 206 206 208 237
Helicopters Involved in Accidents by Phase of Flight
Standing 1 4 2 3 2 1 6 5 5 2
Take-off 3 4 9 5 9 5 6 9 10 6
En Route 9 6 8 10 7 6 6 8 12 12
Hover/Lift 13 10 4 5 3 4 4 3 7 3
Manoeuvring 13 8 14 2 9 9 7 4 7 8
Approach/Landing 17 12 13 19 21 18 11 15 13 13
Unknown 1 2 3 2 5 1 1 6 2 2
Total 57 46 53 46 56 44 41 50 56 46


Top of Page

Table 5 – Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents, First Event vs. Phase of Flight, 1998–2007

Data extracted 16 June 2008.

  Phase of Flight
Standing/ Taxiing Take-off En Route Manoeuv–
ring
Approach Landing Other/
Unknown
Total
Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 9 102 12 25 13 126 3 290
Power Loss 0 106 143 27 56 2 1 335
Collision with Object 56 58 21 26 36 51 3 251
Collision with Terrain 7 53 42 27 28 43 18 218
Collision with Moving Aircraft 17 7 4 7 2 1 0 38
Operations-Related Event 7 23 14 3 8 14 1 70
Component System Malfunction 9 25 18 4 35 41 1 133
Landing Gear Collapsed/ Retracted 16 8 0 0 0 68 0 92
Runway Overrun 1 1 0 0 0 21 1 24
Take-off/Landing Event 5 82 2 2 11 381 2 485
Wheels-up Landing 0 0 0 0 0 58 0 58
Component System-Related Event 1 19 25 4 11 21 0 81
Weather-Related Event 5 27 28 5 24 14 1 104
Aircraft Damage 30 4 1 1 0 3 2 41
Other/Unknown 37 23 33 11 21 51 18 195
Total 200 538 343 142 245 895 51 2414
  Phase of Flight
Standing Take-off En Route Hover/
Lift
Manoeuv–
ring
Approach/ Landing Unknown Total
Helicopters Involved in Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 4 9 2 5 11 17 2 50
Power Loss 0 7 25 10 15 20 1 78
Collision with Object 3 10 1 12 17 31 2 76
Collision with Terrain 5 8 17 4 10 15 4 63
Collision with Moving Aircraft 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 3
Operations-Related Event 1 6 1 3 3 5 2 21
Sling-Related Event 0 4 1 7 7 2 0 21
Dynamic System Malfunction 0 2 3 1 3 1 0 10
Dynamic Rollover 1 8 0 0 1 7 1 18
Autorotative Landing 0 0 0 0 1 15 1 17
Weather-Related Event 1 1 12 2 0 6 0 22
Aircraft Damage 7 3 1 5 1 10 3 30
Other/Unknown 9 7 20 7 12 22 9 86
Total 31 66 84 56 81 152 25 495


Top of Page

Table 6 – Canadian-Registered Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents, First Event vs. Aeroplane Type, 1997–2006

Data extracted 16 June 2008.

  Aeroplane Type
Airliner Commuter Air Taxi Aerial Work Corporate State Private / Other
Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 2 5 42 10 8 0 223
Power Loss 3 0 55 35 5 1 236
Collision with Object 12 14 49 26 7 6 137
Collision with Terrain 3 5 62 17 3 2 126
Collision with Moving Aircraft 2 0 5 4 1 1 25
Operations-Related Event 0 0 16 5 0 0 49
Component System Malfunction 5 11 33 7 2 6 69
Landing Gear Collapsed/
Retracted
1 4 22 2 0 1 62
Runway Overrun 1 1 7 0 0 0 15
Take-off/
Landing Event
15 13 92 21 11 3 330
Wheels-up
Landing
2 1 11 4 4 0 34
Component System-Related Event 4 1 11 4 4 0 57
Weather-Related Event 1 4 28 6 0 0 65
Aircraft Damage 7 3 5 1 1 1 23
Other/Unknown 9 3 41 8 4 1 128
Total 67 65 482 149 49 23 1579
Aeroplanes Involved in Fatal Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 0 1 9 1 1 0 20
Power Loss 0 0 2 1 0 0 19
Collision with Object 0 0 3 2 0 1 16
Collision with Terrain 2 3 22 6 2 2 59
Collision with Moving Aircraft 0 0 0 0 1 1 9
Operations-Related Event 0 0 1 0 0 0 3
Component System Malfunction 0 1 0 0 0 0 2
Landing Gear Collapsed/
Retracted
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Runway Overrun 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Take-off/
Landing Event
0 2 1 1 0 0 1
Wheels-up
Landing
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Component System-Related Event 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
Weather-Related Event 0 0 4 0 0 0 6
Aircraft Damage 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Other/Unknown 0 0 8 1 1 0 21
Total 2 7 50 12 5 4 161
Table 7 – Canadian-Registered Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents, First Event vs. Pilot Licence Type, 1998–2007
  1. Accident pilots for whom the licence type is unknown, and pilots with other licence types were excluded. 

Data extracted 16 June 2008.

  Pilot Licence Type1
Student Private Commercial Air Transport Total
Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 7 17 19 8 51
Power Loss 3 19 15 8 45
Collision with Object 3 13 20 5 41
Collision with Terrain 1 17 34 17 69
Collision with Moving Aircraft 0 8 7 0 15
Operations-Related Event 3 5 5 0 13
Component System Malfunction 1 4 3 10 18
Landing Gear Collapsed/
Retracted
0 4 0 2 6
Runway Overrun 0 2 2 3 7
Take-off/
Landing Event
2 15 12 16 45
Wheels-up
Landing
0 0 0 1 1
Component System-Related Event 0 2 3 2 7
Weather-Related Event 0 8 10 5 23
Aircraft Damage 1 1 2 1 5
Other/Unknown 2 14 16 11 43
Total 23 129 148 89 389
Table 8 – Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents by Operation Type, 1998–2007

Data extracted 16 June 2008.

  1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents
Training 49 43 45 46 20 34 25 16 34 33
Pleasure / Travel 130 130 116 108 102 122 118 116 96 120
Business 15 10 9 10 6 8 5 6 8 15
Test / Demonstration / Ferry 14 9 5 7 7 5 7 5 6 8
Aerial Application 17 9 12 13 6 13 3 6 8 8
Fire Fighting / Fire Management 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 5 0
Survey / Inspection 3 2 0 2 5 2 1 7 3 2
Air Ambulance 3 3 0 3 2 1 2 1 3 2
Air Transport 67 67 53 43 49 42 37 36 38 41
Sightseeing 1 0 5 1 1 4 0 2 3 1
Other / Unknown 16 11 10 8 10 9 5 9 4 7
Total 318 286 258 243 210 242 206 206 208 237
Aeroplanes Involved in Fatal Accidents
Training 5 2 2 2 1 3 4 0 4 3
Pleasure / Travel 11 14 12 10 11 15 10 12 11 10
Business 2 3 3 4 0 0 0 0 1 1
Test / Demonstration / Ferry 2 1 1 2 3 0 0 1 1 4
Aerial Application 0 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Fire Fighting / Fire Management 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
Survey / Inspection 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 2 1 0
Air Ambulance 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Air Transport 4 5 4 4 5 4 3 7 5 4
Sightseeing 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Other / Unknown 1 1 1 1 0 2 1 0 0 0
Total 25 28 26 25 23 26 18 22 23 25
Helicopters Involved in Accidents
Training 5 6 11 11 9 6 4 3 2 3
Pleasure / Travel 0 0 3 4 2 1 5 11 4 4
Business 5 1 1 4 6 1 0 1 0 4
Test / Demonstration / Ferry 0 3 4 1 5 0 2 0 2 3
Aerial Application 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 0 2
Fire Fighting / Fire Management 10 7 2 2 6 6 4 1 3 0
Survey / Inspection 7 4 4 0 3 8 2 1 1 2
Air Ambulance 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
Air Transport 14 10 11 12 14 11 16 19 29 16
Sightseeing 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other / Unknown 14 13 15 10 10 9 7 11 15 12
Total 57 46 53 46 56 44 41 50 56 46
Helicopters Involved in Fatal Accidents
Training 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Pleasure / Travel 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 5 0 0
Business 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1
Test / Demonstration / Ferry 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 1 0
Aerial Application 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fire Fighting / Fire Management 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0
Survey / Inspection 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
Air Ambulance 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Air Transport 2 1 1 1 0 0 2 3 2 3
Sightseeing 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other / Unknown 1 2 5 1 3 1 0 1 4 2
Total 6 4 11 6 6 3 4 10 9 7
Table 9 – Incidents Involving Canadian-Registered Aircraft by Incident Type, 1998–2007
  1. Incidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft only; Table 1 includes those involving foreign aircraft. 

Data extracted 16 June 2008.

  1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Incidents
Risk of Collision / Loss of Separation 149 142 130 170 169 123 182 150 150 152
Declared Emergency 183 173 174 208 231 229 204 152 184 186
Engine Failure 133 121 129 157 134 104 118 116 106 108
Smoke / Fire 86 71 71 92 83 82 81 85 86 106
Collision 3 7 8 17 19 16 21 8 18 9
Control Difficulties 28 18 25 28 28 41 41 41 31 38
Crew Unable to Perform Duties 8 17 15 13 37 48 51 67 56 63
Dangerous Goods-Related 3 3 2 6 0 2 0 1 2 3
Depressurization 19 6 4 15 18 17 7 12 9 11
Fuel Shortage 6 7 1 2 1 6 10 5 6 4
Failure to Remain in Landing Area 8 10 13 4 6 3 10 10 6 7
Incorrect Fuel 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 1 0
Slung Load Released 1 5 6 8 3 4 5 1 3 3
Transmission or Gearbox Failure 1 3 2 2 2 1 2 1 0 1
Total1 628 583 580 722 732 676 734 650 658 691
Table 10 – Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Incidents, Selected Incident Types vs. First Event, 2003–2007

Data extracted 16 June 2008.

Incident Type First Event Aircraft Involved
Risk of Collision/ Loss of Separation
1225 Aircraft Involved
Air Proximity 367
ATS-Related Event 685
Altitude-Related Event 32
Runway Incursion 55
Other 86
Declared Emergency
955 Aircraft Involved
Landing Gear Failure 187
Hydraulic Failure 125
Electrical Failure 37
Other Component Failure 355
Other 251
Engine Failure
552 Aircraft Involved
Power Loss – First Engine 252
Component Failure 259
Other 41
Smoke/Fire
440 Aircraft Involved
Fire/Explosion 321
Component Failure 113
Other 6
Control Difficulties
194 Aircraft Involved
Component Failure 84
Weather-Related Event 59
Other 51

Appendix B – Definitions

The following definitions apply to aviation occurrences that are required to be reported pursuant to the Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board Act and the associated regulations.

Aviation Occurrence

  1. Any accident or incident associated with the operation of an aircraft; and
  2. Any situation or condition that the Board has reasonable grounds to believe could, if left unattended, induce an accident or incident described in a) above.

Reportable Aviation Accident

An accident resulting directly from the operation of an aircraft where

  1. a person sustains a serious injury or is killed as a result of
    1. being on board the aircraft;
    2. coming into contact with any part of the aircraft or its contents; or
    3. being directly exposed to the jet blast or rotor downwash of the aircraft;
  2. the aircraft sustains damage that adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft and that requires major repair or replacement of any affected component part; or
  3. the aircraft is missing or inaccessible.

Reportable Aviation Incident

An incident resulting directly from the operation of an aeroplane having a maximum certificated take-off weight (MCTOW) greater than 5700 kg, or from the operation of a rotorcraft having a MCTOW greater than 2250 kg, where

  1. an engine fails or is shut down as a precautionary measure;
  2. a transmission gearbox malfunction occurs;
  3. smoke or fire occurs;
  4. difficulties in controlling the aircraft are encountered owing to any aircraft system malfunction, weather phenomena, wake turbulence, uncontrolled vibrations or operations outside the flight envelope;
  5. the aircraft fails to remain within the intended landing or take-off area, lands with all or part of the landing gear retracted, or drags a wing tip, an engine pod, or any other part of the aircraft;
  6. any crew member whose duties are directly related to the safe operation of the aircraft is unable to perform the crew member's duties as a result of physical incapacitation that poses a threat to the safety of any person, property, or the environment;
  7. depressurization occurs that necessitates an emergency descent;
  8. a fuel shortage occurs that necessitates a diversion or requires approach and landing priority at the destination of the aircraft;
  9. the aircraft is refuelled with the incorrect type of fuel or contaminated fuel;
  10. a collision, risk of collision, or loss of separation occurs;
  11. a crew member declares an emergency or indicates any degree of emergency that requires priority handling by an air traffic control unit or the standing by of emergency response services;
  12. a slung load is released unintentionally or as a precautionary or emergency measure from the aircraft; or
  13. any dangerous goods are released in or from the aircraft.

Serious Injury

An injury that is sustained by a person in an accident and that

  1. requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours, commencing within seven days of the date the injury was received; or
  2. results in a fracture of any bone (except simple fractures of fingers, toes or nose); or
  3. involves lacerations that cause severe haemorrhage or nerve, muscle or tendon damage; or
  4. involves injury to any internal organ; or
  5. involves second- or third-degree burns, or any burns affecting more than 5% of the body surface; or
  6. involves verified exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation.

ATS-Related Event

Any event related to the provision of air traffic control services including, but not limited to, failure or inability to provide service, emergency handling, or loss of in-flight separation.

Air Proximity Event

A situation in which, in the opinion of a pilot or air traffic services personnel, the distance between aircraft as well as their positions and speed have been such that the safety of the aircraft involved may have been compromised.

Commercial Operators

Commercial operators include carriers that offer a "for-hire" service to transport people or goods, or to undertake specific tasks such as aerial photography, flight training, or crop spraying.

Airliner

An aeroplane used by a Canadian air operator in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, that has a MCTOW of more than 8618 kg (19 000 pounds) or for which a Canadian type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of 20 or more passengers.

Commuter Aircraft

An aeroplane used by a Canadian air operator, in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, in which the aircraft is:

  1. a multi-engined aircraft that has a MCTOW of 8618 kg (19 000 pounds) or less and a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of 10 to 19 inclusive;
  2. a turbo-jet-powered aeroplane that has a maximum zero fuel weight of 22 680 kg (50 000 pounds) or less and for which a Canadian type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of not more than 19 passengers.

Aerial Work Aircraft

A commercially operated aeroplane or helicopter used in aerial work involving

  1. the carriage on board of persons other than flight crew members;
  2. the carriage of helicopter external loads;
  3. the towing of objects; or
  4. the dispersal of products.

Air Taxi Aircraft

A commercially operated aircraft used in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, in which the aircraft is:

  1. a single-engined aircraft;
  2. a multi-engined aircraft, other than a turbo-jet-powered aeroplane, that has a MCTOW of 8618 kg (19 000 pounds) or less and a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of nine or less; or
  3. any aircraft that is authorized by the Minister of Transport to be operated under Part VII, Subpart 3, Division 1 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs).

State Operators

State operators include the federal and provincial governments.

Corporate Operators

Corporate operators include companies flying for business reasons.

Private Operators

Private operators include individuals flying for pleasure. Included are flights on which it is not possible to transport people or cargo on a "for-hire" basis.


  1. It is agreed by convention that, for a result to be considered statistically significant, its probability must be lower than 1 in 20 (that is, p<0.05). 
  2. As some occurrences involve more than one aircraft, users are cautioned to note differences between the number of occurrences and the number of aircraft involved in occurrences. All tables except Table 1 exclude ultralight aircraft; all tables except tables 1 and 4 also exclude balloons, gliders and gyrocopters. 
  3. Canadian-registered aircraft (excluding ultralights) 
  4. Refer to the definitions in Appendix B for explanations for ATS-related and air proximity events.